The main topic this week was the Sun.
Here are a few facts about the sun:
- It is a hot ball of glowing gas
- It is a yellow dwarf, main sequence star
- Approx. 150 million km from Earth (this distance is known as 1 astronomical unit (AU))
- Formed 4.5 billion years ago
- Formed from a giant cloud of spinning and collapsing gas
- Light from the sun takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds to reach our eyes
- Sunlight takes 170,000 years to get from the core to the sun’s surface
- 91% Hydrogen
- 8.9% Helium
- 0.1% other elements such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, neon, iron
The theory of how our sun and planets formed is called the Solar Nebula theory. Our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a large cloud of gas, 98% hydrogen and helium. As it collapses it spins and the centre becomes hot, where the protosun is located. It is colder on the outside of the spinning disc. As the cloud continues to collapse conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum flatten it out. Further in towards the centre the resulting planets are warmer and further away the planets are colder.
The image below shows the structure of the sun,
The temperature at the core is around 15 million celsius. The surface of the sun is around 5,500 celsius. In its core the sun is burning hydrogen and helium via nuclear fusion, this is what stars do and it is why they shine. The sun contains about 99.9% mass of the entire solar system and utterly dominates the gravity of the orbiting planets.
The sun also emits a solar wind, charged particles flowing outwards from the sun that causes space weather and on Earth causes the northern lights.
Our sun has been around for over 4.5 billion years but will not live forever. The graphic below indicates the life cycle of our sun and in about 5 billion years time something rather dramatic will happen!
So, in around 5 billion years time the sun will effectively run out of gas. The sun will begin to puff up in size and quite a lot bigger, around 30 times great in size, the Earth will literally be inside the sun. It will become a red giant. A red giant is red because its exterior has cooled from 9,000 to 3,000 Fahrenheit. This red giant stage will last for another 2 billion years. Eventually the sun will start to contract and become a bit larger than its original radius but give off 10 times as much energy than at present. This phase will last only 500 million years. Our sun will become a white dwarf and then a black dwarf.
The left hand side is for stars like the sun, the right hand side is for stars that are much bigger than our sun.
We were lucky enough to be able to observe the sun from one of the observatory’s telescopes and through a h-alpha filter. It looked something like this,
This means to block out most types of light and view just a very narrow bandwidth focused on the hydrogen alpha spectral line. It means it is safe to observe the sun. The light occurs when a hydrogen electron falls from the third to the second lowest energy level. It is useful for observing prominences.
Did you know… NASA has a spacecraft orbiting the sun called the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The objective of the mission is to observe all aspects of the sun. It was launched in 1995 and is still going strong now. You can view the latest images of the sun on its webpage here. The image below is the sun taken with extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT 195) – 1.5 million kelvin.
Anyway, there is so much information online about the sun and it is so interesting. Keep reading and learning!
Next week …. more about stars!